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Explore the study design & measures in the Leiden-CID study

What did we study? What constructs were measured? And when did we measure them in our cohorts? In the Leiden-CID study, more than a hundred measures were used over the course of two cohorts and twelve waves.

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Aim of the study

The primary aim of the Leiden-CID study is to increase our understanding of the developmental pathways of social behavior and behavioral control that are important to the development of social competence, from early childhood to young adulthood.

If we better understand the mechanisms involved in developmental processes of social competence this allows us to understand optimal conditions that add to the well-being of developing individuals

What is social competence?

Social competence is the ability to adapt flexibly to demands in the social environment, in childhood and adolescence.

Neuroscience research to date has shown that there are marked changes in the brain during childhood and adolescence that underlie the development of social competence. Moreover, periods of rapid brain growth mark development windows of increased plasticity that are indicative of periods of relative larger susceptibility to environmental influences.

unique Study design

To better understand the longitudinal developmental pathways of social competence and behavioral control, the Leiden-CID study has a unique study design.

Our set-up allowed us to take potential differential effects of social enrichment into account. The design includes longitudinal data collection in children to measures development, multimodal data, including neuroimaging, a randomized controlled intervention, as well as twins to study genetic and environmental contributions.
age cohorts
annual waves
years of development
twin pairs
PhD projects

Two cohorts

The Leiden-CID study includes two different cohorts: the early childhood cohort (ECC), aged 3-5 at wave 1, and the middle childhood cohort (MCC), aged 7-9 at wave 1.

Early childhood cohort with 476 subjects included at the start of the study from 3-9 years old.

Middle childhood cohort with 514 participants children 7-13 years old.

6 measurement waves

Each cohort has six annual measures, and across the 6 waves home and lab visits are alternated. The home visits include behavioral measures and lab visits additionally include a neuroimaging measure (EEG or MRI).

This allows us to study longitudinal within-person development of social competence on a behavioral and neural level.

Sequential design

The last two waves of the ECC overlap with the first two waves of the MCC, resulting in a cohort-sequential design including children aged 3-14 years old.

The overlap between the two cohorts not only allows for modeling development over a 10 year period, but also allows us to replicate our findings.

Parenting intervention

To experimentally examine social enrichment, we included a parenting intervention, which allows us to investigate causal effects of parenting on social development. Between the 2nd and 3rd measurement, 40% of the sample received a video feedback intervention to promote positive parenting and sensitive discipline (VIPP-SD).
Parenting intervention (video)
COVID-19 adjustments
Home visits
Digital home visits
Lab visits including:
EEG measurements
MRI measurements

Early childhood cohort

Middle childhood cohort

Development matters | Leiden-CID study

This study was developed as one of four work packages of the overarching Consortium on Individual Development (CID).

CID is a large multidisciplinary collaboration that unites the best researchers on youth and development in the Netherlands.
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